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Making a one-percent measurement at a distance of six billion light-years requires a completely different technique from measurements in the Solar System or the Milky Way. These ripples are imprints of pressure waves that moved through the early Universe, which was so hot and dense that particles of light photons moved along with the protons and neutrons known collectively as "baryons" that today make up the nuclei of atoms.

The original size of these ripples is known, and their size today can be measured by mapping galaxies. Making these measurements required astronomers to map the locations of 1. BOSS uses a specialized instrument that can make detailed measurements of galaxies at a time. The BOSS team presented preliminary BAO measurements from its early galaxy maps a year ago, but the new analysis covers an area more than twice as large, and thus provides a much more precise measurement.

The new dataset also includes the first BAO measurements from a sample of nearby galaxies. By the time all of them are satisfied, we are sure we didn't miss anything. For now, the BOSS measurements appear consistent with a form of dark energy that stays constant through the history of the Universe. This "cosmological constant" is one of just six numbers needed to make a model that matches the shape and large-scale structure of the Universe.

Schlegel likens this six-number model to a pane of glass, which is pinned in place by bolts that represent different measurements of the history of the Universe. Department of Energy Office of Science. A One-Percent Measure of the Universe Researchers from the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey BOSS today announced that they have measured the distances to galaxies more than six billion light-years away to an unprecedented accuracy of just one percent. The Hubble Ultra-Deep Field image shows some of the most remote galaxies visible with present technology, each consisting of billions of stars.

Early universe. Subject history. Discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation.

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Dark Ages. Earliest stars. Earliest galaxy. Omega Centauri. Andromeda Galaxy. Milky Way spirals. Alpha Centauri. Solar System. Earliest life. Earliest oxygen.

Atmospheric oxygen. Sexual reproduction. Earliest plants. Cambrian explosion. Earliest mammals. Earliest apes. See also: Human timeline , and Life timeline. Main articles: Observable universe , Age of the Universe , and Metric expansion of space. See also: Observable universe and Observational cosmology. Main articles: Age of the universe and Metric expansion of space.

How Large is the Universe?

Main articles: Spacetime and World line. See also: Lorentz transformation. Main article: Shape of the universe.

Even better than triangles

Main article: Fine-tuned Universe. See also: Galaxy formation and evolution , Galaxy cluster , Illustris project , and Nebula. Main article: Dark energy. Main article: Dark matter. Main article: Matter. Main article: Particle physics. Main article: Hadron. Main article: Lepton. Main article: Photon epoch. See also: Photino. Timeline of the Big Bang. Big Crunch Big Rip Heat death of the universe. Main article: Solutions of the Einstein field equations.

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Universe - Wikipedia

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Cosmology Is in Crisis Over How to Measure the Universe

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Something Is Not Quite Right In the Universe, Ultraprecise New Measurement Reveals

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References

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Universe at Wikipedia's sister projects. This audio file was created from a revision of the article " Universe " dated , and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. Audio help. More spoken articles. Age of the universe Big Bang Chronology of the universe Universe. Discovery of cosmic microwave background History of the Big Bang theory Religious interpretations of the Big Bang Timeline of cosmological theories. Cosmic microwave background Cosmic neutrino background Gravitational wave background Inflation Nucleosynthesis Habitable epoch.


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Future of an expanding universe Ultimate fate of the universe. Galaxy filament Galaxy formation Large quasar group Large-scale structure Reionization Shape of the universe Structure formation. The fundamental interactions of physics. Electromagnetic radiation Gravitational radiation. Quintessence Weak gravity conjecture. Location of Earth. Astronomy portal - Space portal. Elements of nature.