This article aims to demonstrate the possible paths to be developed for an analysis of the forms of mobilization of rights from the point of view of social movements that also consider the complexity of the legal form. For this, the work is divided into three parts.
The first will bring a summary of the different perspectives in the field of social movements. The second will focus on the current debates on social movements, protests and austerity policies.
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And finally, the third will present the discussion promoted in this special issue of the Law and Praxis Journal aiming at offering new questions for a research agenda on the matter. The field of research on social movements has produced, at least since the s, multiple analytical perspectives. They have focused on the observation of the internal dynamics of movements, the construction of their identities, their forms of performance, as well as their organization and mobilization of resources.
The field was initially categorized within the disciplines of sociology; meanwhile, with the transnationalization of networks of movements themselves, the research on social movements also spread to the political science, international relations and, finally, the field of law. One of the central movements in this context was the Global Justice Movement, which brought together activists worldwide organized around social justice struggles and which also criticized the "there is no alternative" motto reporting the problems of economic globalization.
From the continuous observation of movements in their local and transnational dynamics, the uses of law have been analyzed on the one hand as part of the strategies and resources mobilized by the movements and, on the other hand, as part of the institutional structures of opportunity or repression. Increasingly law has become the subject of reflection in the field of social movements theory. Such reflection, however, is often marked by the lack of a more in-depth analysis of the ambivalent role of the legal form in social relations, a debate that has long been held by the materialist theory of law.
Considering this diagnosis, this article aims at highlighting possible pathways to be developed for an analysis of the forms of mobilization of rights from the point of view of social movements that also consider the complexity of the legal form. For this purpose, the work is divided in three parts. The first brings a review of the different theoretical research phases in the field of social movements. The second focuses on the current debates on social movements, protests and austerity policies.
And finally, the third presents a discussion based on the articles in this dossier and propose a research agenda that analyzes the struggles for social rights in times of austerity as a strategy of mobilization for social movements. Many social scientists have already dealt with the question of the relationship between individual agency and the demand for social change. The emergence of the discipline is characterized by its detachment from the Marxist theory and the influence from the mass psychology. According to Chesters and Welsh , p.
This contrast is reflected in the different views of the phenomenon of protest and the further development of the research field. In the US tradition, collective behavior has been addressed especially with regard to individual human action. The so-called European research focuses more on the causes of protests and the role of collective identity for social change. During this phase, institutions were rarely included in the analysis of collective mobilization. The combination of structural functionalism and socio-psychological studies has been defined under the theory of relative deprivation Kern , 5.
In the s, resource mobilization theory questioned the psychological assumption of a mass driven by irrationality, building a central critique on the perspectives of the former research approaches. This perspective goes beyond the general reproach, widespread within the Global North, that social movements would adopt a pathological and divergent attitude towards democratic institutions Chesters and Welsh , 5.
The work of McCarthy and Zald is a central example of this theoretical change. The fact that the expectation, disappointment and discrepancy between claim and reality do not always lead to a protest movement has been since then investigated in details in order to reveal which concrete mechanisms trigger individuals to collective action Kern , This criticism contributed significantly to a shift of the research focus in the field from the causes to the mechanisms of mobilization Kern , 12 , and therefore, to the forms of organization, which have been developed through empirical studies.
Between the s and the s social movements research experienced a new boost. Kitschelt were developed during this period and are still considered today as the key concepts of social movements research Della Porta and Diani ; Kern , From mobilization causes, through mobilization mechanisms, to the analysis of protest waves and their related events, a new focus was created in the social movements research. These current approaches aim at describing, on the one hand, the relationship between mobilizations and institutions; and, on the other hand, the organizational and strategic processes of movements Della Porta and Diani Tilly, Tarrow, and other successors of the contentious politics approach are also classified in the field of social theory and represented within this field as they bring the theory of movements in dialogue with the critical societal analysis Tarrow However, most of the researches in this field were carried out mainly at the local and micro level.
Their results give insights into the detailed characteristics and strategies of the movements, but they often ignore a relational analysis of the concrete problems and a theoretical embedding Della Porta a. Social movements research developed around several axes in the global context.
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For some scholars, the issues of work, or labor movements, shall be neglected as the theme of an old, already surpassed social phenomenon to which social theory and social movements research should pay little attention see the criticism of Hetland and Goodwin Against the class-debate, the post-materialist approaches have acquired a special meaning also in the Global South cf.
Habermas ; Habermas ; Offe ; Laclau and Mouffe These perspectives focus on the new politicization strategies and antagonisms within different social groups in the context of over-complex societies Chesters and Welsh , Particularly in Europe, especially in Germany, a large part of the social movements research is dedicated to the phenomenon of right-wing populism and its forms of organization.
The central political role of popular social movements in the region as well as an engaged research approach led to a specific development of the field in Latin America. Its contribution offers a systematic analysis focused on the interrelations of the State and social actors that can be also seen as an example for an integrated perspective of human agency, collective organization, and social structure. In the s, influenced by the impact of neoliberal policies in Latin America, and since , following the global economic crisis, the research on social movements is experiencing a new momentum: resistance movements around the world have been particularly investigated Boito Jr.
A new tradition is to be established with the aim of operationalizing the contemporary phenomena of anti-austerity movements and square occupations in their relation to the capitalist dynamics Tattersal ; Cox and Nilsen ; Fominaya and Cox The current worldwide wave of mobilizations can also be seen as an indication that the critical social actors expand their repertoire of action by resorting to all available means to achieve their claims. Protests and mass demonstrations have been already extensively addressed within the social movements research.
This practice has been observed from different perspectives and contexts, 5 but still found little emphasis in the debate on social movements. Considering the struggles for social rights, a central issue taking into account the cutbacks in the investments for these rights in times of austerity, the systematic research on strategic litigation, in the current context, from the perspective of the movements, can offer a new approach for the analysis of the integration of the legal strategies of social movements and their relation with the State in a capitalist system.
This question shall be put in perspective, namely in the current context of crisis though. The political and economic crisis and the protests for social rights and participation. Since , the political and economic crisis has been analyzed from different perspectives by the critical social sciences. The turmoil of the economy based on the interests of the financial market triggered a new wave of reforms, privatizations and cuts in social rights: the bank deficits and the high debts of individual States had to be compensated not only by increasing public income, but also by the restriction of essential services and rights.
Nowadays it seems no longer to be the same, since the term "austerity" has received an increasingly negative meaning. Social movements worldwide have protested against such austerity measures. The protests seem to have a transnational character, but are also strongly influenced by local frameworks cf. In Portugal, for example, the set of decisions of the Supreme Court after can be interpreted as a reaction to the negotiations with the European institutions and to impact they had provoked on the already undermined labor market in the country Duarte and Baumgarten As already mentioned, another central element of this wave of protests was the sharp criticism of the undemocratic decision-making model carried out by representative institutions.
The involvement of the civil society in fundamental policy-making processes, namely in those which have a direct influence on the daily life of people, is increasingly being pushed back Fominaya and Cox Therefore, in her recent work, she aims at developing a theory of social movements that examines the interaction between anti-austerity movements, capitalism, and democracy. With similar questions, but from a democracy-theory perspective, the research agenda of Buckel deals with the dialectics of capitalism and democracy. The author analyzes the current constellation of crisis, especially with regard to its development at the European level.
Following a certain perspective within the tradition of the Marxist theory of capitalism and State, 10 she provides a theoretical framework which, among other contributions, takes into account the radical-democratic potential of the critical social movements. This approach also offers a framework to investigate the potentiality of social movements based on empirical research Buckel , The development of this agenda can contribute to the already developed diagnosis of the crisis of democracy, since social movements are the central actors who articulate the social claims and, at the same time, demand from the democratic institutions that they take their grievances into account.
This diagnosis about the resistance articulations and practices of insurgence of social movements leads to one question: do rights, or social rights have a concrete role in the mobilization dynamics of the movements? How do collective actors formulate their strategies in order to push back the advance of social rights cutbacks?
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Crisis in our national parks: how tourists are loving nature to death
The author traces the evolution of the state park movement from its imprecise and largely unconnected origins to its status as an essential and firmly established state government responsibility, nationwide in scope. It should be of interest to those concerned with federal, state or local parks. Newsletter Google 4. Help pages. Prothero Michael J. Benton Richard Fortey View All. Go to British Wildlife. Conservation Land Management.
Go to Conservation Land Management. Publisher: University of Missouri Press. Dania Beach FL Get directions. Contact Info Welcome to Dr. Plan Your Visit. Fall is probably the best time of the year to visit the park.
In October, the annual southern migrations of birds and fish start occurring to the mutual delight of birders and fishermen, who hope to achieve a once-in-a-lifetime experience. The park provides ample boating opportunities, for all levels of experience and a variety of boat sizes. Explore the calm waters at Dr. Mizell-Eula Johnson State Park. Between November and May, visitors to Dr. Mizell-Eula Johnson Beach State Park may be treated to the rare and beautiful site of these white-pink flowers.