PDF Minutes pontificales sur le préservatif (Littérature) (French Edition)

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Il faut ajouter florins offerts par le chapitre cathedral de Lyon 6. Enfin, le. XLVI , p. Finke, Acta aragonensia. XXVII , p. Ces quittances sont au nombre de I, Rome, , p. Samaran et G. Pour les provinces d'Aix comptes dans Collect. Appendix, acta pontificum suecica. I Acta earner alia : vol. I, fase. Lunt, Financial relations of the papacy with England to , Cambridge Mass. Ganivez, t. I, Paris, , p. Devic et J. Privat, t. X, Toulouse, , col. Geminas regalie excellen- tie litteras recepimus nobis per latorem presentium presentatas, super quaranti contentis breviter intendimus per specialem nuncium sereni- tati regie respondere.

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The Popes at Avignon (1305-1378)

CI , p. GXIII , p. Dupont- Ferrier, Gallia regia, t. Nos autem indubie supponentes tue in hac parte solicitudinis Studium multipliciter profuisse, proinde tue devo- tionis promptitudinem plurimum in Domino cum gratiarum actionibus commendamus, tuam providenciam attendus deprecantes quatinus super ammovendis impediments in eodem negocio appositis, sicut no. I have no reason to doubt the expertise of persons and institutions with internationally renowned competence on these matters.

The family suffers, above all in the poor countries. The fact that families and youth are oftentimes misinformed and given false security should not be tolerated any longer. It is clear that if I make this reflection, it is because of the close relationship between family and procreation, and also because matters regarding the family touching on condoms and other contraceptives pertain to our field of work.

It also supports and coordinates initiatives to protect human life from the first moment of conception and to encourage responsible procreation. Not only should we not be ashamed of things created by God, we should also defend them, for everything that he has created is good. I mentioned earlier that I thought the position of the Church and the foundations of my assertions were already well-known. A well-known and authoritative moralist, Dionigi Tettamanzi, who is now the Cardinal of Milan, tackled these matters in a voluminous book, Nuova bioetica cristiana , published in Some critical reflections become necessary.

For instance, when a soldier receives a condom, he knows that he should avoid contamination; but at the same time he is being induced to believe that any form of sex is licit. As a summary of these and other studies, Dr. Given that AIDS is a serious threat, any inadequate information based on false security offered by condoms used as prophylactics would be a grave irresponsibility.

The above cited medical literature and many others have opened several questions regarding condom effectiveness in preventing sexually transmitted diseases. The Workshop also studied in particular the transmission of other genital infections, and the usual conclusion is that studies demonstrated either no or some protection through condom use, or that there is insufficient data to confirm risk reduction.

This data should not remain unnoticed, since many users, including youth, think that the condom provides total protection. In an article subsequent to the Workshop Summary , [34] four of the Workshop panel members, along with other experts, further analyse points and issues stemming from this Workshop , such as the definition of terms, [35] risk prevention i. In their article, Fitch et al emphasize that the cumulative risk factor is very significant.

What has to be considered therefore is not only the risk of each single condom use, but also of its continued use, a risk which dramatically increases in the long run. This means that the safe sex Russian Roulette becomes even more serious with repeated condom use. The WHO explains that perfect use of the condom does not prevent pregnancy all the time. Indeed, pregnancy in spite of condom use is well documented, with the Pearl index placed at around 15 failures per women years within the first year of use.

The above considerations on studies pointing towards condom failure are not limited to theoretical arguments. That condoms may be defective is not mere theory, but a fact confirmed by real-life experiences in the real world. However, when it comes to the actual or real state of latex materials, in distributed items such as condoms, the situation could be quite different. For instance, some permeability and electric tests indicate that latex may allow passage of particles bigger than the HIV. In addition, FDA requires manufacturers to use a water test to examine samples from each batch of condoms for leakage.

If the test detects a defect rate of more than 4 per 1,, the entire lot is discarded. The agency also encourages manufacturers to test samples of their products for breakage by using an air burst test in accordance with specifications of the International Standards Organization. Does the public know this? Does the public know that the risks increase the more often and the more promiscuously one is exposed, considering the cumulative risk factor, as explained earlier? Cardinal Eugenio De Araujo Sales, who was for many years Archbishop and now Emeritus of the immense Archdiocese of Rio de Janeiro, recently stated in a newspaper article that several lots of condoms some from leading brands were recalled from the market in Brazil in , and , due to failure in different tests and to the discovery of counterfeit products.

Condoms, in addition to having possible manufacturing defects, could undergo deterioration during shipping, handling and storage, and even further degradation after purchase by the end user.

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To a greater or lesser degree, factors such as the following have been proposed as possibly contributing to the degradation of latex and thus to condom failure : exposure to sunlight, heat including body heat when placed in pockets or wallets , humidity, pressure, certain spermicides and even to atmospheric ozone. The condom should not be used if it is gummy or brittle, discolored, or has a hole.

Only water-based lubricants for instance, glycerine or K-Y jelly should be used with latex condoms, because oil-based lubricants such as petroleum jelly weaken natural rubber. Even in the case of serodiscordant couples, from the medical perspective, the condom does not seem to be the real answer: among consistent condom users, there is still the possible transmission of the HIV. Aside from the above considerations on the physical integrity of the condom, one must also remember that condoms are often used improperly.

  • The Popes at Avignon (1305-1378).
  • History of Contraception;
  • The General Data Dissemination System: Guide for Participants and Users;

For instance, one might flip the condom over after starting to apply it on the wrong side, allowing sperm, if already present, to be introduced directly into the vagina. Starting intercourse without a condom or taking it off during intercourse, not holding on to the condom during withdrawal, not withdrawing while the penis is erect, reuse of condom, etc.

WOA! - Funding, Politics, Policies

One study shows that in vivo , slipping and rupture of the condom account for 0. The typical, real-life use of condoms is far from perfect; it is rather frequently used inconsistently and incorrectly. This is not difficult to understand, given that consistent use requires an enormous amount of self-discipline and memory , and correct use requires a relatively meticulous 7-step process, if one follows the guidelines laid down by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But the international AIDS community has been reluctant to promote this strategy elsewhere, continuing, instead, to place its faith in condoms.

In connection with this, the U. What Happened in Uganda? Relatively low rates of condom use by the people in general, and staunch opposition from the Church [63] and a good number of government leaders against the condom program and sexual promiscuity, are well-known facts in the Philippines. They should ask at least for the same courage that has been shown, for example, when the fight against tobacco was started seriously.

AIDS represents a serious danger for which there is still no cure. Condom users should be guaranteed their ethical and juridical rights to be correctly and completely informed of the risks involved in the sexual transmission of this disease, and of the true effectiveness of the prophylactic.