Although late, this and other engravings are of interest and value. Master foe's Unexpected Visit to the Pit. It is given here in order to show the persistence of the Proscenium Doors with Balconies over, and the stage set with wings at the end of the eighteenth century. This rare engraving is from the i2mo edition, , in the author's Collection The original is in Sion College Library.
Charles Booth, the prompter, has noted in the margin Mrs. Ellen Nell Gwyn , Mr. Cartrite Cart- wright , Mr. Harris William Harris , Mrs. Nep Mrs. Knepp , 2 women, to warn these actors and actresses of their entrances. The play was produced by W. Fay ; the scenery designed by Hugh Owen. This comedy was originally produced at Drury Lane, 4th May, The Illustration is from the rare i2mo, 5, in the author's Collection.
The engraving is from the Fourth Edition, nmo, , in the author's Collection. Oldfield is seen as Mrs. The Inthronization of Queen Mary of Modena. The Queen's Coronation robes were presented to the theatre, and were worn by Mrs. Barry in the role of Queen Elizabeth. Settle's The Empress of Morocco, 4to, Anne Bracegirdle, by W. From a rare mezzotint in the Collection of Kenneth W.
Sanderson, Esq. The Renaissance Theatre revival, May, From a photograph in the author's Collection. This play was originally produced at Lincoln's Inn Fields, December, From the edition, nmo, , in the author's Collection From the copy in the Library of Worcester College, Oxford John Lacy by Michael Wright. From the painting at Hampton Court. In , when I was first beginning my collections, the Restora- tion dramatists were very generally ignored, and even among professed scholars the period excited but puisne and lukewarm interest, an indifference, indeed, which it would scarcely be too much to say often amounted to positive aversion.
There were, it is true, some notable exceptions. Sir Edmund Gosse gave us many brilliant sympathetic studies of Congreve, Otway, and others, which in these days of the arid pedantry of the costive colon and comma school are a delight and a refresh- ment most welcome to read. Thorn-Drury, K. Lowe had written a monograph on Thomas Betterton, which— minor faults though it may have and inaccuracies — is alive with true enthusiasm and remains a piece of very real value and solid worth.
In 1, during which year I was paying frequent visits to Stratford-upon-Avon, that ripe scholar and great Elizabethan, Arthur Henry Bullen, often used to discuss with me my note- books and outlined chapters for a History of the Restoration Drama, a book he was generously anxious should be issued by his own Press. However, I was diffident. I felt that my work was not as yet sufficiently shaped, that more research was necessary before I could put it into its ultimate and acceptable form.
Bullen was reluctant to agree, but when I suggested that I should meanwhile edit for him some of the more neglected Restoration dramatists he at once gladly entered into the ancillary scheme. There had been reprints of Etherege by Nimmo in , and of Vanbrugh by Lawrence and Bullen himself in , but it was felt that neither Verity who undertook Etherege, nor W. Ward who was responsible for Vanbrugh, had quite that knowledge of the Restoration theatre which is the only outcome of long and concentrated study in difficult places, but which is none the less an essential equipment for the editor of Restoration plays.
Although unexpurgated, the texts of the Mermaid were modernized for general reading, and the stage-directions adopted were those which had unfortu- nately been tinkered at and rewritten. Brown's Elkanah Settle His Life and Works, published in December, , is a painstaking but singularly frigid and jejune thesis. It is a work, so to speak, of surface dimensions. There is no background such as is essential in the study of Settle, who so continually clashed and re-clashed with his con- temporaries, as he was jostled from political pillar to poetical post.
In form this monograph smacks over much of the spirit or rather lack of spirit we too justly associate with such German studies as Edmund Pliickhahn's Die Bearbeitmg auslandischer Stoffe im englischen Drama am Ende des 1 7. The writer does not seem to be barely acquainted with those authorities who have dealt with the theatre of Charles II. Bullen drew up with me a long programme of Restoration playwrights, bonny Mrs.
That Aphra Behn should come first both my old friend and myself were agreed, but whilst the six volumes comprising her works were in preparation I published with The Shakespeare Head Press Buckingham's The Rehearsal, a play which we both had so often laughed over and enjoyed. This appeared in 19 Behn was well on her way. Ample notes were accumulating for Sedley and Shadwell.
Unhappily the out- break of that world catastrophe, the Great War, wrecked our plans. Behn was published in 5, but in , when we were about to resume our dramatists Arthur Henry Bullen died. I remember well that when I sent him a volume of Restoration Plays, before which I had had the honour of placing his name, Edmund Gosse wrote to me : " You have opened the doors of the Restoration theatre, and the crowds are already beginning to press in," on which I can but comment that though the compliment be perhaps the praise of a too generous friendship, the truth of the presage is certainly approved.
In 1 91 9 was founded the Phoenix Society for the adequate presentation of the plays of the older dramatists. In May, 6, the Stage Society had revived Congreve's The Double- Dealer, a production which so far as existing circumstances would permit was given on the lines of the original presentation more than two and a quarter centuries before. The conventional nineteenth century mode of playing " old comedy " — the " School for Scandal way " as it was called — was entirely abandoned, and this revival together with the subsequent pro- ductions of Dove for Dove, The Way of the World, and Vanbrugh's The Provok'd Wife, culminated in the formation of The Phoenix.
During my connection with The Phoenix we produced three plays by Dryden, two plays by Congreve, and a play apiece by Wycherley, Otway, and Buckingham. It is, of course, common knowledge how great an impetus these performances gave to the study of Restoration drama, and how they bore rich fruit in the many revivals which have proved so successful in the popular theatre. Those were busy years of hard practical work, but in I edited Congreve for the Nonesuch Press, and this was followed in by Wycherley, in by Otway, in by Dryden's Dramatic Works for the same house, a tale of seventeen volumes.
As was inevitable, once the Restoration dramatists had attracted attention there began a steady flow of books dealing with the theatre of Charles II under various aspects. These, not to be too particular, are perhaps best summed up in Martial's line, Sunt bona, sunt quaedam mediocria, sunt mala plura.
Imita bene! One cannot help feeling, however, that in view of the biography of Sir Edmund Gosse such a work as Mr.
Crane Taylor's William Congreve, 1, is entirely superfluous, and worse than superfluous, an opinion which apparently the reviewers fully shared. It is difficult again to see how the publication of such a rehash as Brawny Wycherley, , by Willard Connely is to be justified from any point of view. The conveyances of Mr. Connely are ample — and unacknowledged. Connely advances one new theory originally, I believe, suggested by Mr. Not only is there no new insight into the man, his work, or his time, but the whole of the old material which is used is served up so as to make it repulsive where it does not dull through familiarity.
Southerne I undertook at the express desire of Sir Edmund Gosse, and I feel it a pious duty to offer my work to the Memory of that greatest of critics and kindest of friends. One comedy of Ravenscroft's I have already printed — a dozen years ago now. I have also in the press two of Elkanah Settle's most representative tragedies. But how much remains to be done!
Nat Lee, I am glad to say, is safe in the hands of my friend Miss Maclean. Manley, the philosophical Mrs. Trotter, and the fat Mrs. Pix, all need attention. Something of this kind were far more acceptable, far more useful than yet another derivative Congreve, yet another anxmically second-hand Otway!
Without some knowledge, some visualization of Restoration stage conditions the reader of a play by Dryden, Congreve, Otway, or any contemporary, must often find himself hopelessly puzzled and at sea, whilst a piece of stagecraft which is in itself singularly delicate and adroit will appear consumedly clumsy and awkwardly contrived.
Unless he is familiar with his theatre the editor of a Restoration dramatist cannot but trip, blunder badly, and come to grief. Actually this is what has happened. Passing over such deplorable ineptitudes as the identification of the sculptures representing Dorset Garden in the first quarto, , of Settle's The Empress of Morocco, as illustrations of Lincoln's Inn Fields in , an absurdity which occurs in a recent reprint of the Works of Rochester — and others, we find an editor who sets out to be far more serious writing of a " carpenter's scene " with " a painted back cloth set immediately within the proscenium " in , and hence inserting in a comedy stage-directions corresponsive with his own misconception and mistakes.
We are the less surprised, then, in such a book as The Private Life of Mrs. Siddons by Naomi Royde-Smith to meet with a good many gross blunders. For example, the account of the eighteenth-century alteration of Southerne's The Fatal Marriage ; or, The Innocent Adultery is both confusing and confused.
We are told p. Street', in a town on the sea-board of Bohemia for all we know , in any case, a cosmopolitan sort of place ". This is curious in view of the fact that it is distinctly stated the Scene of Southerne's tragedy is laid at Brussels. In Mrs. Inchbald's edition, , The British Theatre, vol. In a few of the very late reprints such as John Cumberland's Isabella; or, The Fatal Marriage, , the locality Brussels is omitted after the list of characters, but Miss Royde-Smith is at some pains to inform us that she has followed the original text — she speaks p.
I will quote from the late acting copy. Act III, Scene 3, Villeroy at his marriage receives a letter announcing that his brother has been taken ill whilst journeying to assist at the nuptials : Suddenly taken, on the road to Brussels, To do us honour. When it rises once more our mind's eye shows us one of those small inset almost secret pictures the imagination of William Poel has reset for us when reviving plays of this or a slightly earlier period.
Isabella comes in to him. Presumably Miss Royde-Smith refers to the first edition of The Fatal Marriage, advertised as published, London Gazette, I9thnd March, , as " the little volume ", which seems a highly misleading description of a quarto play. And how petty are " the yellowed pages ", " the long J ", and " the plentiful besprinkling of capital letters "! However the main point is that the curtain did not fall, and that Scene drawn does not imply " one of those small inset almost secret pictures ".
Miss Royde-Smith would have been well advised to have studied the engraving of this actual scene in Tonson's edition of The Fatal Marriage, i2mo, The fact is the lady knows nothing of the staging of plays in either the seventeenth or eighteenth centuries, which seems something of a handicap for anyone who essays to write about Mrs. We learn p. I do not know that Kemble had much to do with Rolla. Perhaps Miss Royde-Smith became a little weary " when almost a hundred volumes had been searched " p.
Actually, of course, the farewell performance of Garrick was as Don Felix in Mrs. Cent- livre's The Wonder, A. Woman keeps a Secret at Drury Lane, on 10th June, Yates was his Violante. The play bill " The Last Time of the Company's performing this Season " is extant and has been reproduced.
Siddons is not in the cast. Siddons was the Lady Anne. But Richard III was not his farewell performance, and it is well known that for his last appearance the great actor deliberately chose a favourite role in a favourite comedy, lest upon such an occasion one of his great tragic parts should overtax his emotions and his strength.
Martyn ". Wowski was one of the favourite roles of that fair singer Mrs. Martyr not Mr. Martyn , who also excelled as Flora in Hob in the Well. The portrait of Mrs. Martyr shows her as a most strikingly beautiful woman. These inaccuracies evince the necessity for a writer to gain a clear grasp of theatrical detail. Francis Xavier at Hereford. She quotes pp. His fourth chapter, pp.
Granville-Barker devotes to " Wycherley and Dryden ". He soon makes it apparent that he knows much more about the Restoration stage than any of the stupid fellows who were writing their comedies and tragedies under Charles II and his immediate successors. In fact their technique is deplorable.
They are not skilled dramatists. I concede, they are not skilled dramatists as judged by the standard of stage conditions in the twentieth century, electrical lighting, revolving stages, and the rest. But I submit that in reference to their own stage they were indeed most adroit and adept. Granville- Barker will not have it so. The Restoration dramatists have no technique. The fact of the matter is that Mr. Granville-Barker has no knowledge of the Restoration theatre. I might justly use harder words, for the Phoenix revival of The Country-Wife in amply demonstrated how finished was the technique, how admirable the stagecraft of William Wycherley, in whose dispraise Mr.
Granville-Barker is particularly voluble and jocular. I allow that Love in a Wood is not so neatly cut in parts as the later comedy, but to separate a stage-direction, entirely appropriate, fitting, and practical in its own context, a busy crowded scene, and misinterpreting it, to ridicule the dramatist's phrase, seems disingenuous, trivial, and altogether unfair.
Is it too much to hope that this present study may prevent a repetition of that sort of thing? Perhaps I am over sanguine.
I do not for a moment wish to seem to pretend that I have elucidated all the points in Restoration production, that I have cleared up every crux. There are several stage-directions which appear to me veiy ambiguous. I have met with none which read sheer nonsense. Another factor in the case which must not be left out of consideration is that often the quartos are carelessly printed, and in some instances the proofs cannot have been corrected by the writers, nor indeed by any save a hackney hand. What this implies in the printing of a play perhaps only an editor of long standing knows.
Here I have tried to show that the dresses worn upon the stage of Charles II, if mayhap incongruous, bizarre, and fantastical, were at any rate elaborate and effective. Even the minor dramatists are quite precise in their directions. Which done, Enter Tragedy in state, in a Crimson Robe held up by two Roman Gladiators, a Crown upon her head, a Scepter in one hand, and a Ponyard in the other, at whose entrance the Dancers all start back. This satire has not to my knowledge been reprinted since , and for more than two centuries it would appear to be almost entirely neglected and unknown.
I have furnished explanatory notes. The instructions to the young gallant " how to behave himself in the Play-house ", Dorset Garden, are a lively comment upon the manners of the day. Accordingly I have written a short note upon The Phoenix with a full chronicle of the productions of the Society. This will, I think, answer the present purpose. The story in detail I am telling elsewhere.
- Above The Clouds.
- History of the Blackfriars Precinct.
- ABILENE GAMBLER.
- In Blackness;
In subsequent studies of the Restoration Theatre I design to devote one volume to the Actors and Actresses of the period. Another will deal with the minor dramatists, men of one or two plays. Another surveys politics and personalities in the theatre. In the Introductions and Explanatory Notes to the seven dramatists whose works I have edited much has already necessarily been said concerning the technique of a Restoration play and the practical stagecraft both of the Theatre Royal and Dorset Garden.
Lawrence, two Series wherein several features of Restoration staging were incidentally discussed. Professor G. Odell's Shakespeare from Betterton to Irving, 2 volumes, , deals at considerable length with the Age of Betterton. Professor Odell is always interesting, suggestive, and for the most part candid in his argument and clear-cut in his conclusions. Once or twice at most have I found his purview a little confused as it seemed to me and lacking in precision, — especially perhaps is this the case in reference to the number, use, and position of the proscenium doors, — but even thus on those points where I am constrained to differ from him I have only done so after traversing the ground a second, and often a third time, with especial cogitation and care.
I must not omit to mention here two wholly admirable books of the very first importance, indispensable to any intelligent study of the Restoration stage, Sir Frederick Bridge's Shakespearean Music in the Plays and Early Operas, , and Professor E. Dent's The Foundations of English Opera, It is almost impossible to speak too highly of these works. Would there not be something lacking, too, if I did not honour the memory of old John Genest whose Some Account of the English Stage will assuredly never be superseded, and as yet has not even been approached? With regard to the Illustrations, in the first place I have to offer my loyal duty and humble thanks to His Majesty the King for Gracious Permission to give from the Royal Collection at Hampton Court the triple portrait upon one canvas of John Lacy, the famous comedian, in three roles.
Bracegirdle in his Collection ; the President and Fellows of Sion College for permission to reproduce a page of the printed prompt-book in the Sion College Library of Shirley's The Sisters, 8vo, , marked by Charles Booth, the prompter of the Theatre Royal, for a revival of ; the Provost and Fellows of Worcester College, Oxford, for permission to reproduce the frontispiece of Duffett's farce, The Empress of Morocco, 4to, , William Harris in the title-role, from the copy in the Library of Worcester College.
It is my pleasure to thank most gratefully for their particular kindnesses Mrs. Gabrielle Enthoven, Mr. Bache Matthews, and Sir Charles Oman, who went to no small trouble to afford me facilities and secure me permission to reproduce illustrations for this book. As I have already said, from first to last I have been engaged upon the particular study of the Restoration period for no less than forty years, and whatever else I may have learned or may have missed in that time one lesson I have been most straitly taught, and this in the phrase of Herodotus is : 7a KaXa TrdXac evprjrai.
Montague Summers. Hark you, hark you, whither away so fast? Why to the Theater, 'tis past three o' th Clock, and the Play's ready to begin. A Comedy. London : Printed for the Author, By the same aid, the Stage invites her friends, And kindly tells the banquet she intends ; Thither from real life the many run, With Siddons weep, or laugh with Abingdon ; Pleas'd in fictitious joy or grief, to see The mimic passion with their own agree ; To steal a few enchanted hours away From care, and drop the curtain on the day.
Crabbe, The Newspaper. However ingenious, elaborated, and enticing it has become in its latest developments there are perhaps few things more essentially conservative than the art of advertisement, whilst theatrical advertising is necessarily as old as the theatre itself. Thus in England during the Middle Ages the performances of miracle-plays were announced throughout the country-side by vexillatores or bearers of bannerols, who were often accompanied by a noise of minstrels.
This was the case with the Ludus Conventriae and the Croxton Sacrament play ; the Chester cycles were proclaimed up and down the streets by the Town Crier on 23rd April, S. Frequently these notices were delivered in good set form, and in order that they might be learned the more easily by the vexillator they were versified in galloping rhymes. Ye, haste you thanne thedyrward, syris, hendly in hyth, 3 All goode neyboris, ful specyaly we you pray, And loke that ye be there be-tyme, luffely and lyth, For we schul be onward be underne of the day.
If the performance was to conclude by nine o'clock, or well before noon, it must indeed have begun rathe and early. It is remarkable that this form of advertising plays, the earliest method known in England, endured for several centuries and flourished long after the introduction of the written or printed playbill and placard. In Elizabethan days nothing more surely attracted the folk of a country town to gape and stare than the throb of the drum and the sound of the trumpet which heralded a procession of players through their midst, for as the manager of the touring company remarked to Dr.
Primrose, " strollers always have more spectators without doors than within. In his A Sermon Preached at Paules Crosse on 24th August, , John Stockwood 5 cries : " Wyll not a fylthye playe, wyth the blast of a Trumpette, sooner call thyther a thousande, than an houres tolling of a Bell, bring to the Sermon a hundred?
The address, "Ad Lectorem " before Dekker's Satiromastix, 4to, , com- mences : " In steed of the trumpets sounding thrice, before the play begin, it shall not be amisse for him that will read " to note certain errata in the printed text. At the beginning of The Poetaster, acted in , " After the Second Sounding," Envy arises through a trap in the midst of the stage and delivers a bitter oration.
As he concludes we have " The Third Sounding ", and an " armed Prologue " rushes in setting his foot on the head of the monster who is disappearing down below. Many other examples might be cited. A Drum, on this account, always makes a part of the Property of a Country Company ". So in Hogarth's picture, " Strolling Actresses Dressing in a Barn," among the profusion of properties strawed all out of kelter everywhere can be discerned a trumpet and a mighty drum.
The last vestiges of these histrionic processions may even yet be sometimes seen at fair time in villages and smaller market towns, when the travelling circus which has pitched its tents and wagons in the fields or on some open ground hard by parades its tinselled heroines and their liveried squires, its zanies and merry-andrews, its gaudy chariots and caparisoned horses, all its glitter and tawdriness, and thus seeks to ensure a full house to applaud the evening's mime and mummery.
It is common knowledge that in the Elizabethan theatres an hour or two before a performance a flag was hoisted to announce to the public that it was an acting-day. This flag, blazoned with its proper cognizance of a swan, is flying gaily in the famous sketch of the interior of the Swan Theatre, 11 which has very frequently been reproduced from the drawing after Johannes de Witt in Arend van Buchell's commonplace book c.
Ovid's velum is, of course, the awning stretched over the theatre as a protection from the sun, as Propertius similarly says : " Nec sinuosa cavo pendebant vela theatro. Catulus, quum Capitolium dedicaret. Mox Caesar totum forum Romanum intexit. Thus in Middleton's A. Mad World, my Masters , we have : " 'Tis Lent in your cheeks ; the flag is downe. The flag was hoisted for particular performances and shows at least as late as , 15 but the practice appears to have been dying out at the end of the century, and it may, I think, be taken as certain that it was finally discarded just about that time the hour of the play grew later and from afternoon became evening.
Yet to-day we have a close parallel. The globe that crowns the Coliseum music-hall in S. Martin's Lane nightly blazes or used to blaze a radiant ball of electric fire, a glowing landmark in the West End of London, serving the same purpose as the Bankside flags which notified the public across the river that it was an acting-day. In France the affiche had been utilized as early as 1 5 5 6, 16 and in England the playbill as a poster must have come into evidence but a little later, since on 23 rd February, , the puritanical Edmund Grindal, Bishop of London, 17 in a letter 18 to the Secretary of State, Sir William Cecil, remarks that he has of late noticed " these Histriones, common playours ; who now daylye, butt speciallye on holydayes, sett vp bylles, whervnto the youthe resorteth excessively ".
In Merry Tales, Wittie Questions and Quick Answeres , cxxxiii, a story is told of a cheat practised by one Qualitees, who cozened an audience by feigning a per- formance would be given, and who set up " vpon postes aboute London " bills for " an antycke plaie ". Rankins, whose Mirrour of Monsters has already been quoted, reprobates actors " sticking of their bills in London ". Another fanatic is even more irate, and in a letter Harleian MS. Admyralles, and dyvers others : so that when the belles tole to the Lectorer, the trumpetts sound to the stages, whereat the wicked faction of Rome lawgheth for joy, while the godly weepe for sorrowe ".
Marston in The Scourge of Villainy has " Go read each post, view what is play'd to-day ". In the Induction to A Warning for Faire Women, 4to, , Tragedy thus indignantly addresses History and Comedy : — He scourge and lash you both from off the stage, T'is you haue kept the Theatres so long, Painted in play-bils, upon euery poast, That I am scorned of the multitude My name prophande.
In Bartholomew Fair, first acted in 16 14, Sharkwell and Filcher enter with bills of the puppet-play, and Cokes reads the bill aloud. O here's the bill, Sir: I had forgot to give it you. And we have a stage direction " Hee giues him the Play-bill ". Thus we see that not only were bills set up on posts in prominent places about the city and especially at the playhouse doors, 19 but copies were also made for distribution.
On 30th October, , as entered in the Stationers' Register, John Charlwood obtained a licence for " the onely ympryntinge of all manner of billes for players ", but none the less it seems that a number of bills were continually written out by hand, and most certainly in the country all of necessity were thus engrossed. The very same device is common enough to-day when revues and lightest fare are given highly allusive and quarter-quibble names to wheedle and entice the vulgar.
Later the bills inflated and grew bombastic, farced with flourishing and fustian detail, but this was not until the eighteenth century had dawned, and it would appear not unlikely that in the first place this infection of grandiloquence was caught by the regular houses from the booths and petty motions of Bartlemy Fair. As we might suppose, when at the Restoration the theatres once more opened their doors with official approval and legisla- tion, the custom of advertising upon the posts was resumed, no doubt with wider scope and in neater design. This appears very scanty information, and obviously the name of the theatre must have been given, but be it noted presumably not the hour of commencement.
To the advertising by the display of a bill on posts in the street there are many references. Failer, what do you think this Fellow was saying of you? That you were one of the errantest Cowards in Christendom, though you went for one of the Dear Hearts : that your name had been upon more posts than play-bills. Millisent is about to go to the theatre when Sir Martin stupidly blurts out that the piece at the Duke's is a damn'd play and that at the King's e'en as bad, upon which Warner hurriedly intervenes with " There was an ill Play set up, Sir, on the Posts, but I can assure you the Bills are altered since you saw 'um, and now there are two admirable Comedies at both Houses ".
Bayes in high dudgeon carries off his script crying " And so farewel to this Stage for ever, I gad ", the Second Player calmly advises : " Come then, let's set up Bills for another Play : We shall lose nothing by this, I warrant you. He sees the name of the play, and remarks that it has never been acted before. On Monday, 24th March, , Pepys notes : "I went to see if any play was acted, and I found none upon the post, it being Passion week. I went thither. Then I saw it acted. It is true, for want of practice, they had many of them forgot their parts a little ; but Betterton and my poor Ianthe 26 outdo all the world.
Curdle gave many directions " relative to keeping the places for them, and dusting the seat, and sending two clean bills as soon as they came out ". In The Library, Fourth Series, vol. These were the types of bills delivered at patron's house. All five bills afford the most meagre information ; the name of the piece to be acted, the theatre, and the date.
The bill of A King, and No King is alone in stating the hour of the performance. Pray ye be kind,. Early in a company of French actors paid a visit to London, and although their stay appears to have been short it aroused a good deal of jealousy and ill-feeling at the Duke's house and among Killigrew's company. The latter, indeed, were especially aggrieved. Owing to the disastrous fire of 25 th January, , they had been burned out of the Theatre Royal, Bridges Street, and in dire distress they were obliged to take refuge in the Lincoln's Inn Fields theatre which had just been vacated by their rivals.
A foreign invasion to boot galled them to the uttermost. Moreover the French comedians were resorting to attractive novelties which drew packed houses. In Paris at this time each theatre used playbills of a different and distinctive colour, red bills being the especial prerogative of the Hotel de Bourgogne. Little wonder that Dryden writes bitterly in the Prologue which he furnished to Carlell's Arviragus and Philicia, revived at Lincoln's Inn Fields about Easter, — With sickly Actors and an old House too, We're match'd with glorious Theatres and new, And with our Ale-house scenes and Cloaths bare worn Can neither raise old Plays nor new adorn.
If all these Ills could not undo us quite, A brisk French Troop is grown your dear delight ; Who with broad bloody Bills call you each day To laugh and break your Buttons at their Play ; Or see some serious Piece, which we presume Is fall'n from some incomparable plume. The curious part is that the English managers and actors were not astute enough to take a hint, they neither made their native bills larger nor did they employ scarlet and vermilion.
The name of the author of the play did not find a place upon our English bills until the very end of the seventeenth century, and this innovation was due to circumstances that well might be termed accidental. Writing to Mrs. Steward on 4th March, , Dryden says 28 : " This day was play'd a reviv'd comedy of Mr. Congreve's, call'd The Double-Dealer, which was never very takeing.
In the play-bill was printed — ' Written by Mr. Congreve ; with severall expressions omitted. A week or so after this protest, early in June, the Mayor and Aldermen published an Order forbidding play-house bills to be placarded in any part of the city or the liberties. In the Epilogue, spoken by Joe Haines, to Mrs. Centlivre's first play, The Perjur'd Husband; or, The Adventures of Venice, produced in the summer of at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane, the following couplet occurs : — Let Magistrates consider 'tis but fitting, That as they take down Bills, they'd put down Cheating.
The inhibition was strict, and remained very sensibly in force for no brief period. Farquhar in his Discourse upon Comedy, published in Love and Business, , has : " true downright sense was never more universal than at this very day ; 'tis neither confin'd to one nation in the world, nor to one part of a city ;.
The brief old play-bill did not give any cast ; not even the names of the principal actors were mentioned, with or without any indica- tion of the roles they sustained. At first the advertisements, the earliest of which had appeared just before , were but a replica of the play-bill, but before long they developed ; the names of the principal performers were printed, and then were added the characters these supported, the whole rounded with a favourite phrase " and all the other Parts to the best advantage " ; finally a full cast, or practically a full cast, was supplied and the programme had come into existence.
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The Lands of Faith have been plundered by agents of Set and Apophis for long enough. Their time is over. Those who violate the principles of justice and balance are our prey, and Where the Shadows Grow Long We live our days completely ignorant of the true terrors lurking around us. Only rarely do our experiences draw back the veil of shadows and reveal the horror in our midst.
These glimpses into the Pain Rage and Fear Everything that exists has a reflection in the world of the Shadow, it is said. When new ideas and technologies are introduced in the physical realm, they birth new spirits to accommodate them. Only the rarest of concepts or creations bring about the birth of a truly new spirit. Most are simply older spirit forms, redressed to fit the new iteration of their platonic state. Pain, Rage, and Promethean: The Created Demo Promethean: The Created is a new game set in the World of Darkness, featuring a whole new type of character for players, inspired by the classic Frankenstein monster and the worldwide myths of Golems.
Prometheans are soulless corpses animated by a mysterious, alchemical force — the Divine Fire stolen from the gods. Their hideousness forces humans, animals, and even nature itself to reject them This free booklet introduces you to those shadowy figures inhabiting the World of Darkness known as Prometheans. A storytelling game of stolen lives.
This is the first time that White Wolf has explored the traditional horror genre of created monsters — characters who from the outset stand apart from the rest of society, isolated. Razors and Thunderbolts: The Ksirafai A Righteous and Thankless Calling The Order of Reason is founded on ideals of strength, unity, and safety through shared vision and indefatigable purpose.
Despite this solid foundation, a schism has formed in the Order once in the past. The departure of the Solificati led the Maximi to form a secret Convention, bound to act as the conscience of the Order. Secrets of the Ksirafai Razors Reach and Grasp: Cults of the Arisen The existence of the Arisen is a confusing staccato journey through time. Precious context and basic comprehension of the world around them is denied the Arisen by the rigors of the Rite of Return.
Most Arisen are fortunate enough to have a cult to draw upon for a connection to the living world. Return to the Tomb of 5 Corners contains a demo version of the Exalted Second Edition rules and a sample adventure of epic scope. Return to the Tomb of 5 Corners Scroll of Firearms offers rules options for introducing firearms and explosives as an emergent technology to your Exalted: Second Edition campaign! States of Bearing Morality has always played an important role in Vampire. Whether playing a kind-hearted Kindred who desperately clings to Humanity, or a monstrous Cainite who follows the Path of Power and the Inner Voice, the character relies on morality to keep their personality intact and keep the Beast from taking control.
Any vampire who has not fallen to the Wassail subscribes to some form of The Tomb of Five Corners A band of mighty heroes is brought together by hazy visions of its members past lives and of the tomb wherein their forsaken bodies lie, defended by deadly traps and surrounded by untold riches. Four of these stalwart souls find their way to a valley north and east of the city of Nexus, rediscover the bonds of their ancient brotherhood and determine to join together to recover their forgotten artifacts Every card is included and every strategy examined. Vampire: The Masquerade - 2nd Edition Vampire is a game of make-believe, of pretend, of storytelling.
Although Vampire is a game, it is more about storytelling than it is about winning. If you've never done this kind of thing before, you may be confused by the whole premise of a storytelling game. Once you catch on to the basic concepts, however, you'll find that it isn't all that strange, and is, in fact, eerily familiar. You, along Vampire: The Masquerade - Revised Edition They stalk in the shadows, moving gracefully and unseen among their prey.
They are the blood-drinking fiends of whispered legends - Kindred, Cainites, the Damned. Above all, they are vampires. Their eternal struggle, waged since the nights of Jericho and Babylon, plays itself out among the skyscrapers and nightclubs of the modern world. Vampire: The Masquerade 20th Anniversary Edition Vampire: The Masquerade exploded into hobby games in and inspired a generation of fans the likes of which the game industry had never seen before or since.
The cultural significance Vampire left on not just the gaming world but on modern vampire-related pop culture can be seen and felt at virtually every turn and in every medium today. Vampire: The Masquerade - 20th Anniversary Vampire: The Requiem Welcome to the Danse Macabre Since time immemorial, the Kindred — vampires — have stalked their prey, unseen by the mortal masses. Their world is a xenophobic nightmare, populated by tyrannical despots, wildeyed heretics, bloodthirsty rogues and scheming manipulators, all unified by the mysterious curse of vampirism.
And you would join them? You would live forever? To play the Discover the seductive and dangerous world of the undead in "Mary's Child," a complete introductory scenario. Just select your click then download button, and complete an offer to start downloading the ebook.
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If there is a survey it only takes 5 minutes, try any survey which works for you. Book Descriptions: La storia di Maria. Register for FREE 1st month. Download your desired books 3. Easy to cancel your membership. Joint with more than