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Multiple interviews and archival research identified multiple concerns that extend well beyond the natural environment. For the purpose of guiding cumulative impact assessment, these concerns were broken down into six themes: land-based activities; human health; identity, culture and sense of place; access to financial benefits; power, rights and jurisdiction; and intrinsic value of nature.

The inclusion of non-ecological values and the identification of concerns not assessed under regional resource management approaches emphasize the need to establish a means to include First Nations in the assessment of cumulative impacts.

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The diversity amongst the concerns identified by the communities and their capacity to participate in such a study highlights the need for an open and flexible approach to collaboration. Finally, the difficulties encountered during this project illustrate the need for both researchers and communities to proceed with care and caution when entering info collaborative research partnerships. Overview of commonly used indicators under federal and provincial assessments of cumulative impacts..

Examples of mammals, birds and fish typical of northeast British Columbia 5. Process for assessment of cumulative impacts involving Communities 19 2. Map of Treaty No. I feel so much gratitude to the Elders and the community members who taught me so much more than I ever anticipated learning.

I would also like to thank the hard work done by the community researchers who worked directly on this project and the staff members in the lands offices. I must thank the Treaty 8 Tribal association for initiating this work and the Sustainable Forest Management Network for funding the project.

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I would also like to thank Dr. John Innes for giving me the opportunity to join this project and showing faith in me. For three years, he was consistently a supportive, encouraging and inspiring supervisor. I would also like to thank the contributions of my committee members, Dr. George Hoberg and Dr. Charles Menzies. I must thank Dr. Alejandro Rojas for his help and guidance Dr. Kelly Bannister for her support in the field. I would also like to thank my external examiner, Dr.

Rob Kozak for his contributions and guidance. I must acknowledge both the academic guidance and the friendship of Denise Allen. Without her, I certainly would not have made it into the field or through my defence.

Of Moose and Men: Home is Where the Harm Is

I would also like to thank Judi Krzyzinowski for her collaboration and friendship. Thank you to all of the other graduate students who kept me inspired to continue learning. I must thank Diane McGuigan for both the emotional and financial support. I would also like to thank Peter McGuigan. Thank you to Bruce McGuigan for the ongoing encouragement.

Finally, I must acknowledge the support, guidance and editorial services of Craig Holm. As a result, many First Nations' communities are currently fighting to maintain their spiritually and culturally integral relationships with the landscape Boyd and Williams-Davidson Their efforts are impeded by ongoing legal and legislative confusion surrounding the realization of First Nations' rights.

To defend their rights legally and to participate in contemporary planning and resource management processes, First Nations require tools that demonstrate the impacts of development in their traditional use areas and on their land-use rights, interests and values. Although these tools should not be limited to scientifically informed studies, to be useful in negotiations, they must be acceptable to government, First Nations leaders and community members.

Furthermore, all First Nations in Canada have constitutionally protected rights to continue traditional land-use practices Section 35, Canadian Constitution Act, As a result of the fiduciary relationship that exists between the Crown and First Nations, both government and industry have a court-defined obligation to consult with First Nations and to adequately address their concerns regarding the impacts of land and resource use decisions1.

Despite First Nations' rights and the legal obligations of Government and industry, no process or policy exists that adequately ensures protection from the cumulative impacts of development. Cumulative impacts "refer to the accumulation of changes in environmental systems over time and across space in an additive or interactive manner" Spaling A key element of cumulative impacts is the concept that no disturbance or event occurs in isolation and, in order to assess the outcomes, assessment must be made within the context of other past, present and future ecosystem disturbances. In northeast British Columbia, there has not been adequate assessment of cumulative impacts and more specifically, there has been no assessment of cumulative impacts framed from First Nations' perspectives Korber This oversight has occurred despite First Nations having 1 R.

Delgamuukw [] 1 C. C , Haida Nation v. Ringstad et al. The Environmental Assessment process addresses cumulative impacts on a project by project basis, and the impacts of forestry are not assessed under the process Hegmann et al. This process has only limited direct involvement of First Nations and is certainly not framed from their perspective.

In addition to failing to collaboratively identify ecosystem values prioritized by the First Nations in the region, the framework employed a computer model that is not spatially explicit and therefore is unable to meet the needs of the First Nations. Treaty No.


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Although northeast B. In , the region produced 34 million cubic meters of gas Ministry of Energy and Mines a and there are currently over 17, oil wells Ministry of Energy and Mines a. There is also potential for the extraction of over 2. The current provincial government intends to accelerate oil and gas development in the northeast by streamlining regulations and enhancing infrastructure Ministry of Energy and Mines ; Ministry of Energy and Mines b; Ministry of Energy and Mines c.

Despite cultural historical, geographic and economic differences, there is a shared concern that the cumulative impacts of oil and gas extraction, forestry, hydroelectric generation, mining, agriculture and other industrial activities are irrevocably altering the forest ecosystem and potentially infringing on the First Nations' rights, interests and values associated with the ecosystem.

This is less than 1. BC Stats 2 In response to the rate of development, potential impacts, and lack of satisfactory assessment, the Treaty 8 Tribal Association 4 approached the Sustainable Forest Management Network5 for assistance in a cumulative impact assessment. John Innes from the Faculty of Forestry at the University of British Columbia was identified as a potential academic partner and principal investigator.

In , the Treaty 8 Tribal Association and Dr. Innes secured funding for a pilot project to investigate the cumulative impacts of industrial development on the forests in northeast British Columbia and the project was initiated. Partner meetings were held in the fall of to begin the process of framing of the project. The aim of the cumulative impact study is to work with First Nations, government, industry and other partners to develop a tool that will help guide future development in the forests of northeast British Columbia by assessing the cumulative impacts of industrial development on First Nations in the region.

To facilitate the development of an effective tool, it is necessary to ensure that the concerns of First Nations are adequately addressed. Halfway First Nation participated in some planning meetings. Fort Nelson, Prophet River, Saulteau and West Moberly First Nations were active participants and collaborators in this stage of the project and Doig River First Nation played an extremely supportive role and helped guide the research.

The initial stages of cumulative impact assessment typically involve the identification of valued ecosystem components VECs Beanlands and Duinker ; Hegmann et al. V E C s are prioritized resources, environmental features or ecological processes used to identify appropriate indicators and to establish limits of acceptable environmental change.

According to Hegmann et al. Stevenson and Usher , stress that when working with First Nations, V E C s should be identified from an "aboriginal perspective". Even the concept of V E C s , as currently defined, may be in conflict with traditional First Nations' worldviews.

Research involving First Nations' traditional ecological knowledge requires an approach that differs from standard Western research because traditional ecological knowledge may be holistic, contextual, dynamic, culturally significant Berkes , involved, experiential, site-specific, grounded in place and particularistic. Standard research methods such as questionnaires and structured interviews decontextualize and compartmentalize information. In many First Nations' cultures, direct questions are culturally inappropriate Wildlife Lands and Environment Department and Autsyl K'e Dene First Nation and as result, provide a poor measure of community priorities.

By collaborating with the communities and the Treaty 8 Tribal Association, we developed culturally appropriate methods that enabled us to come to a common understanding of what the current environmental priorities are and how they can be used to guide a cumulative impact assessment. Collaboration and participation provided a framework for bringing the normative together with the scientific Fischer for the purposes of guiding the cumulative impact assessment pilot project. Included in this work are concerns that were identified at a point in time in direct relation to the discussion of cumulative impacts.

Concerns that are not addressed in this project are in now way less important or of less value to the communities. They simply were not identified for this assessment of cumulative impacts. The third chapter outlines the natural, cultural and socio-economic context of this research. Chapter 4. Chapter 6.

Chapter 7. The final chapter summarizes and concludes the thesis. For this project, environment is not limited to the natural environment Innes et al. As a result, forestry, oil and gas, mining and other forms of industry have both positive and negative outcomes for forest-dependent communities. While governments, industry, resource managers and communities struggle over the assessment of industrial impacts and the distribution of benefits, development continues to alter ecosystems and communities incrementally. Developing a means to evaluate the combined effects these activities have on forest-dependent communities and the natural resources they depend on is of the utmost importance.

Unfortunately, the dialogue surrounding the appropriate means of assessment is clouding the ultimate purpose of tackling the issue, and subsequently obfuscating the solution. In order to assess the impacts of development from the perspective of forest-dependent indigenous communities, one must employ a holistic approach and set clear, community and culturally appropriate objectives.

To put it simply, the ends must determine the means. Watts points out that deforestation involves a struggle over productive resources, production strategies and property rights. Colfer goes one step further stating: "There is growing recognition that many people living in forests have not been treated 'fairly', that their resources have been usurped by more powerful individuals or organizations and that their well-being has been adversely affected in a variety of ways.

This daunting task requires recognition that the impacts of industrial development extend beyond the natural environment, also impinging on social, economic and cultural priorities. It is these unique priorities or values that must frame the approach to assessment and present the principal hurdle when managers, researchers and communities collaborate.

The values which people place on forests vary greatly, depending upon the culture and social group in question, and the roles which forests play in their livelihoods and quality of life While generalization is inherently perilous, indigenous communities are typically characterized by a culture and society that is uniquely bound to and defined by the natural environment Adequate assessment of the multiple impacts of industrial development on forest-dependent communities requires a holistic, inter-disciplinary perspective that is not limited by the reductionist approaches commonly associated with the scientific method.

Researchers must employ methods that allow for the reality that the natural environment represents different values to different people and that it is not explicitly distinct from social, cultural and spiritual values. These differing ways of knowing the environment must frame any assessment of impacts. If, however, a clear objective is kept in mind, the enquiry need not be overly complicated.

New roads and roads near critical habitat are linked to moose Alces alces mortalities due to collisions with vehicles Lavsund and Sandegren , Bangs et al.

Moose attacks West Kelowna home

Effects of industry however, are not always direct and activity maybe indirectly linked to ecological change. Linear infrastructure associated with industrial development, such as forestry and oil and gas, is linked to higher rates of wolf predation in caribou James , James and Stuart-Smith Clearcuts provide suitable habitat for moose and increase 7 their vulnerability to hunters Racey et al. Grizzly bear Ursus arctol were found not to avoid industrial activity and as a result are more likely to come into conflicts with humans -resulting in increased mortality rates McLellan and Shackleton Understanding both the effects of industry on ecological components and the intricate relationship that exists between the natural environment and communities is integral to assessing the cumulative impacts of development.

An increased dependence on commercial, natural-resource-based economies ultimately means that forest-dependent communities are affected by market fluctuations. Although some general links have been recognized between development and community well-being, many of the relationships are unclear.

Economic downturns, for example, are associated with a decline in community well-being Kaufman and Kaufman Industry changes and restructuring can result in increased poverty rates in forest-dependent communities Beckley and Korber Alternatively, boom towns experience rapid population growth. This influx of people is often associated with increases in suicide rates, substance abuse and crime rates Beckley Despite a burgeoning literature, the links between development and community well-being remain less clear for indigenous communities. It is likely that the cultural, spiritual and social ties to the land amplify these impacts.

For example, looking at a case study from the Russian Far East, the timber industry provides local employment and plays a significant role in the economy of indigenous communities Sasaki Simultaneously, deforestation and the associated ecological change are depriving indigenous people of the resources and territory required to sustain their traditional practices of hunting, fishing and gathering.

This loss has the effect of eroding their cultural values. Sasaki suggests that the attrition of these values and the marginalization of hunting are resulting in a loss of the conservation ethics that previously limited the exploitation of wildlife. While development of the forest industry provides economic opportunity, it does so at the expense of local cultures. Until the last century, the indigenous people survived by practising small-scale swidden agriculture, mixed home gardening, hunting and gathering. With the development of transportation infrastructure in the region and state-run initiatives to encourage colonization, and a transition to agrarian livelihoods, the native forests were cleared and the area settled.

This inward migration, together with the cumulative impacts of forestry and agriculture, limited indigenous peoples' access to the land base, resulting in increased state control over the population's livelihood and cultural sustainability.

Of Moose and Men: Changes

Overlooking the political changes would ultimately result in an inaccurate depiction of the populations' experience of cumulative impacts. As with the Russian example, the environmental impacts of development exist within a greater social, cultural, economic and political context, and extend beyond the physical environment. A clear understanding of the process requires addressing the rights and interests of indigenous, forest-dependent communities, and gaining an understanding of.

While the concept of cumulative impacts is compatible with the holistic nature of many indigenous peoples' worldviews, the meaningful assessment of these interconnected impacts is mired in the confusion that surrounds both definitions and process. The terms cumulative effects and cumulative impacts have become standard in the lexicon of resource management.

In Canada, cumulative impacts have been addressed under the Federal Environmental Assessment process since Hegmann et al. Provincial regulations in Alberta8 require cumulative impacts be addressed. Amongst practitioners and researchers, there is ongoing uncertainty regarding the definition s of, and the distinctions between, cumulative effects and cumulative impacts.

They may be distinguished based on the presumed negative inference of impacts Preston and Bedford , or based on the approach that impacts equate to disturbances resulting in effects Risser Furthermore, cumulative impacts and effects may be limited to the environment Alberta Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act 9 Bain et al. There is enduring discussion over the appropriate scale for the assessment of cumulative impacts. Under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Process, cumulative impact assessments must "assess effects over a larger i. Researchers also advocate a regional approach as the only means to avoid ongoing erosion of the environment Stakhiv Regardless, cumulative impacts are generally managed on a project-by-project basis and the management of impacts is hampered by the limitations of government jurisdictions.

Assessment of cumulative impacts is a relative activity. At some point, the level of change becomes unsustainable or unacceptable relative to a previous or alternate state of the environment. Defining an appropriate reference point from which to assess impacts is a key issue. Although federal guidelines suggests that cumulative effects assessments should include a discussion of historical activities and developments Hegmann et al.

This is due to a lack of quantitative information and a lack of confidence in qualitative data Hegmann et al. With reference to the American National Environmental Policy Act, Stakhiv suggests that the practice of using current conditions as a baseline renders the effects of past actions as part of the baseline rather than a factor in the cumulative impacts. Pauly also cautions that accepting current ecosystem conditions as an ecological baseline results in the acceptance of an ever-worsening ecological state. According to McCold and Saulsbury , an appropriate baseline for impact assessment is the historical point at which the resource or ecosystem component of interest was most abundant.

Alternatively, Morgan etal. Due to the difficultly of defining natural, historic range of variation, the Montreal Process Technical Advisory Committee recently recommended the exclusion of this concept from criteria and indicators of sustainable forest management. Whether or not historical range of variation should include ecosystem management practices of indigenous populations, is unresolved. Arcese and Sinclair argue that there should be no attempts made to maintain current ecological conditions in these reserves, and that human interference should be monitored and restricted.

Quibbling over baselines, scale and definitions is ultimately fruitless. When assessing impacts within the context of specific communities, clarity regarding the community-appropriate and purpose-specific conceptual, geographic and temporal boundaries is integral to a successful project. Ultimately, these boundaries will provide a working definition of cumulative impacts. The imposition of inappropriate boundaries will hinder the project and result in an inaccurate portrayal of the impacts of industry-caused change.

The appropriate scale and baseline for addressing the cumulative impacts of industrial development on forest-dependent communities should be defined by the perspectives and objectives of those communities. Battiste and Henderson assert that " indigenous ecological knowledge is conceptualized as a way of understanding the web of social relationships between a specific group of people With this concept in mind, limiting cumulative impacts to environmental changes may be inappropriate.

In order to allow for cultural and contextual distinctions, cumulative impacts may be defined as the accumulation of changes resulting from multiple past, present and future land-uses modified from Spaling , Hegmann et al. Finally, cumulative impact assessment may or may not involve the management and planning process Smit and Spaling These objectives will result in a project-specific determination of scale, baseline and scope.

In short, to achieve a meaningful assessment of the impacts of industrial development on a given community, the questions of what, where, when and why must be clearly defined. Preconceived notions of the limits of cumulative impacts must be discarded. In , Smit and Spaling identified ten types of cumulative impact evaluation methods: spatial analysis, network analysis, biogeographic analysis, interactive analysis, ecological modeling, expert opinion, multi-criteria evaluation, programming models, and land suitability evaluation and process guidelines such as the process required as part of an Environmental Assessment.

The methods differ based on process, scale, technology and objectives. The framework describes a process that will monitor and manage cumulative impacts at both the project and the regional level. The confusion surrounding cumulative impacts and their assessment extends to the concept of V E C s and the whether assessment should be limited to ecosystem components or broadened to include social, cultural and economic impacts.

The NWT CIMP employed the term valued components VCs , defined as "aspects of the environment which have particular importance, based on economic, social, cultural, community, ecological, legal or political concern, in a given geographical area. Consequently, V C s are not limited to the ecosystem components.

There is a wide range of potential indicators of cumulative impacts that can include measures of change resulting from industrial activity i. When indicators are tracked over time effects on particular VCs can be observed. This approach employs process guidelines and relies on indicators that are intended to measure impacts on V E C s identified by experts and stakeholders Hegmann et al.

Ultimately, the range of potential indicators is huge. Table 3 based on a review of federal and provincial Environmental Assessments from northern British Columbia and Alberta outlines ecological and land-use indicators commonly employed in the assessment of cumulative impacts. Indicator wildlife are selected based on their ecological role, status as endangered or threatened, and cultural significance. Researchers are recognizing the importance of acknowledging local knowledge Fischer The Kache Tue study was based on a systematic community collaboration process with the objective of determining "the significance, in relation to the natural world and Dene way of life, of the observed changes in the natural environment " Wildlife, Lands and Environment Department Autsyl K'e Dene First Nation The project differs from other projects in that the objectives, methods, scope and scale were all defined within the context of the community objective of interpreting impacts on the Dene people, Like the Kache Tue Study, the NWT CIMP employed community-based research methods in the assessment and monitoring of cumulative impacts over a much larger area.

Initiated as part of the Gwich'in, Sahtu, and Tlicho land claim agreements, the project is a collaboration between the territorial, federal and local First Nations leadership DIAND The study 17 involves the regional identification of priorities and the collection of all related local and scientific knowledge. The use of modeling, expert local knowledge, criteria assessment or any other means of cumulative impact assessment depends entirely on the objectives of the exercise.

The methods employed under the Environmental Assessment process may be ineffective from a community perspective because they do not sufficiently address the complex social, cultural and economic impacts, and are unlikely to capture the extent of the interconnectedness between community and ecology. The project-by-project approach is unlikely to capture large-scale changes and a lack of faith in qualitative information Hegmann et al. Alternatively, approaches based exclusively on local knowledge may fail to capture changes occurring at scales too small to be observed.

These projects may also face the monumental challenge of reconciling holistic traditional indigenous knowledge systems with a reductionist, science-based way of knowing. Regardless of the approach and tools employed, a staged framework may be applied to cumulative impact assessment. Beanlands and Duinker identify the following four stages of cumulative impact assessment: scoping, analysis, evaluation of significance and follow-up. The scoping phase requires the definition of the project scope, and the identification of stakeholders and V E C s Beanlands and Duinker The analysis phase employs the tools or means of measurement and the collection of data.

The evaluation phase is based on the assessment of the changes and impacts. Finally, the follow-up phase includes mitigation and monitoring. Three similar stages are also outlined by Stevenson in his discussion of the use of indigenous knowledge in Environmental Assessment. Like the preceding systems, Stevenson's initial phase includes the identification of the project scope.

These systematic approaches to cumulative impact assessment offer the key to assessing the impacts of industrial development on forest-dependent communities. An accurate, inclusive and meaningful scoping phase is the key to clearly assessing the impacts of industrial development on forest-dependent communities. During the scoping phase, the appropriate definition of cumulative impacts should be identified, the temporal and geographic reach of the project established, community values and priorities identified and the appropriate means of assessing the impacts of industrial development determined.

Figure 1 proposes an approach to cumulative impact assessment. Process for assessment of cumulative impacts involving communities. Project goals and rationale must be clearly stated and understood by all collaborators during the initial stages of any assessment project. Without a clear understanding of "why" a project is being undertaken, it is unlikely that meaningful results will be produced.


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As projects advance, frequently referring to the decisions made during the scoping phase will ensure that the results are meaningful. Community values and priorities must also be clearly articulated: "Even if scientists were able to provide perfectly accurate information about the ecological consequences of human actions, exclusionary choices would still have to be made among competing social, economic, and environmental objectives.

The exclusion of significant values can result in massive oversights, the inappropriate inclusion of irrelevant indicators" or misinterpretation of impacts and benefits. To understand these values and interests, make appropriate choices, and accomplish a meaningful and useful assessment, the communities in question must guide the scoping phase of the project.

Furthermore, this process must be accomplished in a culturally Stevenson , Usher and community-appropriate manner. To achieve this, researchers and practitioners must form meaningful partnerships with forest-dependent communities. The key to success lies in collaboration, shared power and collective responsibility. A holistic, inclusive approach must be emphasized during the scoping phase if not throughout the project.

Researchers must be prepared to challenge conceptual limitations. For example, the abandonment of a priori cultural categorization is integral to culturally appropriate scoping. There is also a great deal of potential in qualitative, locally held information. Outside of local communities, the validity of locally held knowledge has been more widely recognized since the Berger Report Sallenave While the incorporation of traditional knowledge into scientific assessment processes is wrought with risks, including decontextualization and commodification Cruikshank , community direction and control present opportunities to overcome these problems.

This inclusive approach incorporates the regional indigenous way of knowing that does not separate ecological values from social, cultural, and spiritual values. Ultimately, assessing the impacts of industrial development on communities must begin at the community level. While collaboration and relationship-building are time consuming and challenging, without giving a voice and power to local forest-dependent communities, it will 20 be impossible to achieve meaningful assessments: If the primary objectives are clearly defined and understood, issues regarding definition, scope and methods will fall into place.

Despite the pressing nature of this issue, there is no widely- accepted means of assessment of cumulative impacts of industrial development on forest dependent communities. There are multiple definitions of cumulative impacts, ranging from those that include social and cultural impacts and potential management solutions, to the more limited assessment of ecological changes alone. Means of assessment are also extremely varied, including expert opinion, modelling and mathematical assessment. However, assessing these impacts from a community perspective requires a flexible, holistic approach that forgoes preconceived definitions and conceptual boundaries.

Focussing on the objective of the assessment and allowing community goals to guide the project will ultimately resolve confusion over definitions, methods and scope. This practice will also ensure an assessment that meets the needs of communities. In the following sections I describe the geology, ecology, industry, government, legal, historical and cultural factors that influence cumulative impact assessment. This region quickly gives way to prairie. In the north, the landscape is dominated by a mosaic of muskeg and forest.

Very long cold winters and short growing seasons are representative in the region. Forest fires are common and drive succession. The region also provides habitat for many mammals, birds and fish. Table 4 lists some of these species.

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On the driest sites, relatively open lodgepole pine Pinus contorta -lichen forests occur, pine - black spruce Picea mariana stands are found on some north facing slopes and black spruce - moss communities typify more poorly drained sites and the occasional pure tamarack stand occurs in rich swamps and fens. Wetlands and small black spruce and tamarack Larix laricina stands are found in the northern part of the region. Agricultural lands predominate in the region around Dawson Creek and Fort St. European economic systems and artifacts were introduced by the westward expansion of the Cree people Ridington As a representative of the North West Company, Alexander MacKenzie traveled through the region in and by a fort was established near present day Fort St.

John Fladmark According to Ridington , it took less than 30 years for the economy of the First Nations in the northeast to shift from communal self-sufficient hunters to European-dependent trappers. The discovery of gold in the Klondike resulted in many gold seekers passing through the northeast to reach the Klondike. The presence of these travellers on the waterways of the region and the pressure they placed on local game species ultimately resulted in tensions between First Nations Madill By the s, the northeast was also opening up to agriculture.

The transfer of the 3. This land transfer included some of the most productive agricultural lands in the area. Between and the non-First Nations population in the region increased from to approximately 20, Land continued to be cleared for agriculture for the next 50 years. Oil and gas development in northeast British Columbia exploded after the Leduc discovery in Alberta. This resulted in the reversal of a restriction on oil and gas development in the Peace River area, and in the first productive oil well was sunk in British Columbia. This led the development of oil and gas wells, processing plants, pipelines and the development and infrastructure associated with exploration and extraction.

Today, oil and gas is a driving force in the British Columbia economy. In the early 's the rate of clearing slowed, and forestry replaced agriculture in the economy. In the 's the sale of timber from northeast British Columbia had begun to extend beyond the local market. John in , timber became a significant export from the region Brody Logging led to the establishment of sawmills, pulp and paper mills and other processing capacity such as the production of oriented strand board.

The 2km W. Bennett Dam, located 23km up stream at the head of the canyon was completed in The resulting Williston Reservoir is the largest reservoir in British Columbia. Questions or concerns relating to the accessibility of the FCC's online public file system should be directed to the FCC at , TTY , or fccinfo fcc. Home Local Article. Man survives messy moose crash. Updated: Tue PM, Jun 25, The lower portion of the moose entered the passenger compartment, through the shattered windshield.

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